In This Tutorial:

To perform ‘operations’ on variable or values, the programming languages provide operators. For example 10 + 5 = 15. Where 10 and 5 are called operands while ‘+’ and ‘=’ are operators.

PHP provides all type of operators that are required to perform operations and can be categorized into the following:

- Arithmetic Operators
- Comparison Operators
- Logical Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Ternary Operators also knows as conditional operators

### PHP Assignment Operator

The** “=”** sign is an assignment operator in PHP. This is used to assign the value to variables.

**Examples:**

$Int_var = 10;

$Str_var = “String Variable Assignment”

$a = $b; //Assigning one variable value to other

### PHP Arithmetic operators

To perform mathematical operations, PHP provides following arithmetic operators.

Operator | Name | Example |

+ | Addition | $a = 10 + 10; |

– | Subtract | $a = 20 – 10; |

* | Multiply | $a = 5 * 5; |

/ | Divide | $a = 50/5; |

% | Modulus | $a % $b |

### Using Assignment Operator with Arithmetic operators

Assignment | Will be taken as | Name |

a += b | a = a + b | Addition |

a -= b | a = a – b | Subtraction |

a *= b | a = a * b | Multiplication |

a /= b | a = a / b | Division |

a %= b | a = a % b | Modulus |

### Increment/Decrement Operators in PHP

Operator | Name | Description |

++$a | Pre-increment | Increments $a by one, then returns $a |

$a++ | Post-increment | Returns $a, then increments $a by one |

–$a | Pre-decrement | Decrements $a by one, then returns $a |

$a– | Post-decrement | Returns $a, then decrements $a by one |

### The Comparison Operators

The comparison operators are used to compare two values, numbers or strings. It results in * true or false*. For example, if

*$y=10*and

*$z=20*then following will result as follows

Operator | Description | Example and result |

== | Checks if two operands are equal or not. | (y == z) is not true. |

!= | Checks if “not equal to” | (y != z) is true. |

> | Greater than | (y > z) is not true. |

< | Checks if less than | (y < z) is true. |

>= | Greater than or equal to | (y >= z) is not true. |

<= | Less than or equal to | (y <= z) is true. |

### Logical Operators

Operator | Name | Example | Result |

and | And | $x and $y | True if both $x and $y are true |

or | Or | $x or $y | True if either $x or $y is true |

xor | Xor | $x xor $y | True if either $x or $y is true, but not both |

&& | And | $x && $y | True if both $x and $y are true |

|| | Or | $x || $y | True if either $x or $y is true |

! | Not | !$x | True if $x is not true |

### PHP String Operators

As we have used in our chapters, the **“**.**”** (period) and **“**.=**”** operators are used as string operators.

The .(period) is used for Concatenation purpose. See example below

###### Experience this example online

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 | <?php $Str_op = "This is"; $com_string = $Str_op . " Concatenation example!"; echo $com_string; ?> |

**Output**

This is Concatenation example!

**Usage of Concatenation assignment (.=) example**

###### Experience this example online

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 | <?php $Str_op = "This is"; $Str_op .= " Concatenation example!"; echo $Str_op; ?> |

**Output**

This is Concatenation example!